Urinalysis prescribe virtually all patients who seek medical help.This is a study that gives a lot of useful information on the work of the doctor kidneys, immune system, heart and blood vessels, as well as urine pecheni.Rezultaty decrypts doctor, and according to them, appoint additional research and treatment.But patients would be superfluous to know what they say those or other indicators.
Urinalysis: decoding and rate
There are several indicators that made transcript analysis and conclusions on the state of human health:
colored urine .Normally, in healthy humans, it should be light yellow, without admixtures of other colors.The color of urine may be only slightly modified - it affects the food that a person consumes, the different drugs.
- Dark urine may be liver disease, t. To. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver failure.The destruction of red blood cells - hemolysis - can also lead to darkening of the urine.This can happen when a blood transfusion, malaria and others. Infectious diseases.Uri
- intense dark yellow color is the 1st of the signs of dehydration, which occurs in vomiting and diarrhea, and heart failure.Colorless urine may be diabetes and diabetes insipidus, increased fluids and kidney damage.
- Urine is pink in the use of red fruits and berries.For example, beets or blueberries.
- bright red urine contains red blood cells - blood cells.This is typical of urolithiasis, pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis.Blood in the urine can be in bladder cancer, and renal infarction.
- Dark red urine is determined by glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, tuberculosis, kidney and urinary tract, renal infarction, enhanced the destruction of red blood cells, and taking certain medications.This urine is red, it is cloudy and contains brown precipitate.Determined people who take such drugs as metronidazole or antibiotics from the group of sulfonamides, as well as infusions and decoctions of medicinal herbs bearberry.
- Black urine can be a sign of melanoma.
Transparency urine - also a very important criterion in the diagnosis.Normally, it should be transparent.This property is maintained for a first few hours of collection analysis.Slight turbidity due to epithelial cells and a small amount of mucus.
Causes turbidity of urine:
- inclusions of erythrocytes in urolithiasis, cystitis and glomerulonephritis.
- large number of white blood cells in inflammatory diseases.
- presence of bacteria.
- high content of protein in the urine.
- Elevated levels of epithelial cells.
- salts in urine in large amounts.
urine specific gravity varies depending on the quantity of substances that are dissolved in it.The more of these substances, the higher density.These agents may be inorganic salts or protein, sugar and bilirubin.Bacteria, erythrocytes and epithelial cells also increases specific gravity.Adults are normal densities from 1.010 to 1.022 g / l.
Explanation urine child differs from that of an adult only a few indicators.The density of the urine - one.In newborn infants up to 10 days it should be 1,008 or 1,018 g / l, in 2-3 years - 1,010-1,016 g / l in children 4-12 years - 1,012 - 1,020 g / l, in 12 years it must conform to the figuresadults.The high density of urine is observed under the following conditions:
- Diabetes Kidney disease
- large doses of antibiotics and diuretics
- Drinking inadequate amounts of liquid or water loss
- toxicosis in pregnant
- Urinary organs
- Low density iswith diabetes insipidus, the use of diuretics, and consumption of large amounts of fluid.
acidity of urine .Normally, it should be in the range of pH 4-7.Low acidity and a sign of various pathologies.
Protein in the urine of a healthy person should not be higher than 0.033 g / l.Increasing the amount of protein indicate serious kidney diseases, inflammation of the bladder and ureters.
Albuminuria renal origin happens at nephropathy, glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis.The percentage of protein in urine at such conditions may exceed 3%.
often high protein content is determined by allergies, epilepsy and cardiac insufficiency.
In children with poor physical development between the ages of 6 to 16 years and in women during pregnancy protein can be increased, but only slightly.
excessive exercise, prolonged walking, perspiration and swimming in very cold water also causes physiological increase in protein, but it is not a disease.
glucose in the urine is determined mandatory.In healthy people, it should not be in the assays.Permissible concentration - up to 0.8 mmol / L.If the amount of glucose in the urine increases, this may indicate kidney function and diabetes.In diabetes, its amount is more than 10 mmol / L.Dr.causes of elevated glucose:
- acute form of pancreatitis
- Nephrotic syndrome Cushing's syndrome
- adrenal tumors -feohromatsitoma
- Eating sugary foods in large quantities
ketone bodies in urine - an important indicator of healthhuman.The main representative - acetone.In healthy people, ketone bodies in urine is not.But violations of metabolic processes in the body, they can be determined.Elevated levels of ketone bodies is observed in such cases:
- alcohol intoxication
- Acute pancreatitis form
- predominance in the diet of protein products
- Fasting for a long time
- high level of thyroid hormones in hypothyroidism
- Cushing's disease.
Bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine of a healthy person is not defined.They occur in various diseases and metabolic disorders.
hemoglobin in the urine. During normal operation of hemoglobin in the urine also should not be.It is defined in such conditions:
- Hemolytic disease Blood transfusions
- extensive myocardial infarction
- muscle injury trauma syndrome and prolonged compression of
- mushroom poisoning, and various chemicals.
in urine sediment may be determined by such components:
leukocytes.In men, the number may be up to 3 cells in the urine sample, women - to 6. As a general rule, increased urinary white blood cells observed in inflammatory processes in the urinary organs.
Red blood cells are normal and do not have to meet in the urine, or be in small quantities.For men and women, the rate of erythrocyte in urine is the same - to three cells in one portion.If there are more, you should think about the disease.The number of red blood cells is increased in kidney stones, cancer, and glomerulonephritis.
Epithelial cells are always defined in the draft, but they should not be more than 10 in sight.
Cylinders and salt in the urine of a healthy person should not be detected.The high salt content of the said risk of developing kidney stones.
Bacteria and fungi are determined in the urine sediment only at the diseases caused by them.With such a result, patients prescribed antibiotic and antifungal therapy.
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Urinalysis - quite informative study.A healthy person is recommended to do it at least once a year.If you show up in the urine changes, different from the norm, the doctor will prescribe additional research and the disease is diagnosed at an early stage of its development, which will greatly facilitate the treatment.