General blood test is a simple but informative study.Its indicators give information on the state of the whole organism and functions of various organs.Who is a blood test done in computerized laboratories in a short time.But in some hospitals and blood elements counted manually under a microscope, as was done before.Decode tests doctors and patients is helpful to know about the meaning of certain indicators.
Complete blood count: decoding of
Key indicators in the blood:
- Red blood cells are red blood cells, which contain a substance that carries oxygen - hemoglobin.It carries oxygen to all tissues and organs.Normally, women should be 3.7-4.7 per 1012 per liter of blood, and men - 4.0-5.5 per 1012.Insufficient amount of erythrocytes is observed, for example, anemia associated with iron deficiency.The increase of this indicator in the language of medicine is called "polycythemia".It can develop in violation of the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
- hemoglobin - the substance of
- Hematocrit - is the percentage of the number of red blood cells and plasma.In a normal hematocrit in men it is - 42-53%, and for women - 36-47%.The decline of this index indicates anemia, and increase - to increase the number of red blood cells - eritremii.
- leukocytes are colorless blood cells.They have different shapes and sizes.The main function of these elements - the fight against infections and protection against them.There are five types of white blood cells: the lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and basophils.The normal white blood cell count - 4-11.According to their type, you can determine the nature of the infection.
- Neutrophils help destroy germs.Average number of them - 40-75%.A high content of these cells indicates the presence of infection and inflammation in the body.
- Lymphocytes - a type of white blood cells.They are the main components of the human immune system.Lymphocytes are divided into two types: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.The type produces antibodies and lymphocytes are T-type fighting infectious microorganisms and control the quality of human cells.Average number of lymphocytes of 20-40%.Increasing says about infectious diseases, mainly viral nature.
- Eosinophils have a weak orange coloration.The amount of these cells increased in allergy and asthma, and also in the presence of parasites in the body.Normal blood eosinophils of healthy person is not more than 6%, although they may not be detected in the blood.
- Monocytes - are cells capable of engulfing and digesting microorganisms and harmful substances.They are formed, as well as others. Red blood cells in bone marrow.Norm of monocytes from a healthy person of 3-7%.Elevated levels of these cells in the blood leads to supposition of a viral disease.
- Basophils are large blood cells.They contribute to the expansion of blood vessels in the course of infection and inflammation.Normally, there should be no more than 2%.Basophils as eosinophils, may be completely absent in the blood of priissledovanii.The increase in these cells occurs mainly in lesions organism viruses.
- Platelets are involved in blood clotting.Normally, there should be 150-450 thousand. Per microliter (ul) of blood.The lack of platelets suggests viral infections and increases the risk of bleeding.
- Reticulocytes normally not be detected, or the amount of 1%.Increased reticulocyte count may be in oncology.
- ESR - erythrocyte sedimentation rate.The rate for males - 2-20 mm / h, and for women - 2-25 mm / h.Increase of this indicator suggests inflammation and many others.al. diseases.
Biochemical analysis of blood: and decoding rate
Important indicators of biochemical blood tests:
- The rate of total protein in the blood - 64-84 g per 1 liter of blood.Increasing the amount of protein indicates infectious diseases, arthritis, malignancy and rheumatic diseases.
- Haptoglobin - is a protein substance that is responsible for maintaining the iron.The normal amount of haptoglobin in adults - 150-200 thousand. Mg / l.Reduced protein happens in autoimmune diseases, liver pathologies, erythrocyte membrane defects and diseases of the spleen.Increased haptoglobin suggests oncologic process.
- Glucose - a very important substance in our body.She is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates.Normally should be 3-5.5 mmol / l.Increase of this indicator is due to diabetes, as well as impaired glucose tolerance.
- Urea is a product of proteins.Normally, blood should contain from 2.5 to 8.3 mmol / l.High levels of this substance constitutes a violation of the kidneys, a heart failure, bleeding, intestinal obstruction and urinary tract tumors.With strong physical exercise and intensive training may be a temporary increase in the amount of urea in the blood.
- Creatinine involved in energy metabolism in tissues and is an important indicator of kidney function.The rate for males - 62-115 mg / dL for women - 53-97.A high level of creatinine is in renal failure or hyperthyroidism.
- Cholesterol is a component of fat metabolism.Normally, it should be from 3.5 to 6.5 mmol / l.High cholesterol indicates risk of atherosclerotic narrowing of blood vessels, heart and vascular diseases and liver.
- Bilirubin is formed from the decay of red blood cells.Normally, it should be from 5-20 mmol / l.Increased bilirubin can lead to jaundice.He suggests liver disease, cirrhosis, gallstones, and a lack of vitamin B12.
- ALT - liver enzyme increases the destruction of body cells.For men, the rate of ALT was 41 U / L, and for women 31 U / L.The increased forces to think about liver and heart muscle, heart, cirrhosis, hepatitis, liver cancer.
- AST - involved in the metabolism of amino acids and is also found in liver cells, kidney cells and cardiomyocytes.The rules are the same as for ALT.Increasing says about cancer, pancreatitis, heart failure, heart attack.
- Lipase - this enzymatic substance that helps to break down fats.Normally, it should contain up to 190 U / L of blood, and may not be at all.Increased lipase says about diseases of the pancreas.
- Amylase breaks down carbohydrates.Its rate 28-100ed / l.Pancreatic Amylase - 50 U / L.High levels of amylase is in peritonitis and pancreatitis, diabetes, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and renal failure.
blood test in children: decoding
In children, some blood parameters are different from adults.But changes in the blood suggest the same diseases as humans age.Next to each index are below the norm, corresponding to the child's age (1 day, 1 month, six months, one year, from 1 to 6 years, 7 to 12 years, from 13 to 15 years).
Hemoglobin: 181-240, 116-175, 111-140, 111-135, 111-140, 111-145, 116-150.
Erythrocytes: 4,2-7,6, 3,9-5,6, 3,6-4,8, 3.5-4.9, 3.7-4.5, 3,6-4,7 3,8-5,1.
Reticulocytes: 30-51, 3-15, 3-15, 3-15, 3-12, 3-12, 3-12.
Platelets: 181-490, 181-400, 181-400, 181-400, 161-390, 161-380, 161-360.
ESR: 2-5, 4-9, 4-11, 4-12, 4-13, 4-13, 4-16.
Leukocytes: 8,4-24, 6,5-13, 5,5-12, 6-12, 5-12, 4-10, 4-11.
Neutrophils stab: 1-17, 1-4, 1-4,5, 1-4, 1-5, 1-5, 1-6.
Segmented Neutrophils: 45-81, 15-46, 15-46, 15-46, 25-61, 35-66, 40-64.
Eosinophils: for all ages - 0.5 - 0.7%.
Basophils: for all ages - 0-1%.
Lymphocytes: 12-35, 40-75, 42-75, 38-71, 26-61, 24-55, 22-51.
Monocytes: From 0 to 6 years - 2-12 from 7 to 15 years - 2-10.
As you can see, age figures vary greatly.For newborn babies have a special table, with gradations indicators for days of life.Analyses infants difficult to decipher, and violations can talk about illnesses that are inherent in a given period.
- Urinalysis: decoding
- What if the bilirubin is elevated blood?
- Increased uric acid in the blood: what to do?
blood test is recommended to take 1-2 times a year.This study will help determine virtually any disease at an early stage to facilitate treatment.If you change the rules in the blood do not delay the campaign to the doctor, try to immediately see a specialist to get professional assistance!